British Council Newton Institutional Link Award (ID 172600309)

This British Council Newton Fund Institutional Links grant was awarded to the University of Portsmouth and the University of Brawijaya, Indonesia. The other partner organisations involved in this project include University of Adelaide, Australia, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India; Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, India. The project has three components:

1. Developing collaborative institutional link with Indonesian universities/research organisations;

2. Undertake a research programme on the socio-economic impact of female migration on the left-behind;

3. Develop and deliver capacity development training programmes in both quantitative and qualitative research methods.

Saseendran Pallikadavath

Saseendran Pallikadavath

Principal Investigator, PB Centre, University of Portsmouth, UK - sasee.pallikadavath.@port.ac.uk

Professor Keppi Sukesi

Professor Keppi Sukesi

Board of Supervisors, Research Coordinator and Reviewer - keppi_sukesi@yahoo.com

Dr Faishal Aminuddin

Dr Faishal Aminuddin

Director - mfaishal@ub.ac.id

Mrs Henny Rosalinda

Mrs Henny Rosalinda

Executive Secretary - rosalinda08@yahoo.com

Dr Amie Kamanda

Dr Amie Kamanda

Senior Research Associate - amie.kamanda@port.ac.uk

Professor I.S Rajan

Professor I.S Rajan

Professor, Centre for development studies - rajan at cds.ac.in

Dr Abishek Singh

Dr Abishek Singh

Associate Professor Department of Public Health & Mortality Studies - abhishek@iips.net

Dr Kieron Hatton

Dr Kieron Hatton

Principal Lecturer - kieron.hatton@port.ac.uk

Project outputs

1. Institutional Link
Portsmouth-Brawijaya Centre for Global Health, Population and Policy (PB Centre) (LINK) was created through the British Council programme 'Institutional Links', with funding under the Newton Fund from the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The Centre is one of the leading centres of global health research with over 25 academic researchers and postgraduate students affiliated to it. www.globalhealth.port.ac.uk

2. Postgraduate training and short courses
The PB Centre offers Masters in Global Health Research Methods in our Malang and Portsmouth campuses from 2017 and 2018, respectively. More details are in our Postgraduate section (LINK).

We have completed a 3 days training progamme on quantitative methods during June, 2016 in our Malang campus as part of the project. We now offer regular training programmes in our Malang campus and details are in our Postgraduate training section (LINK)

3. Research
i.Keppi Sukesi, Saseendran Pallikadavath, Amie Kamanda, Faishal Aminuddin, Henny Rosalinda, Returning home: Reintegration experiences of international female labour migrants in East Java Indonesia. British Society for Population Studies: http://www.lse.ac.uk/socialPolicy/Researchcentresandgroups/BSPS/annualConference/2016-Conference-Winchester/Timetable.pdf
Data and methods

Context and aim: This paper examines reintegration of return female international migrants with their families and communities in East Java, Indonesia. East Java is one of the highest female international migrant sending provinces in Indonesia. The migration of Indonesian women is largely temporary, with work permits lasting on average 4 years, some staying up to 10 years. Reintegration of women into their families and communities is vital for their overall well-being, yet there is a significant knowledge gap in this area and this paper aims to address this need. Data and methods: The study was carried out in two villages in Malang and Ponorogo regencies. Census of households in the two villages (178) followed by qualitative interviews with return migrants, left-behind husbands, elderly parents and key respondents (71 in total). The data were analysed with qualitative thematic and content analysis. We also employed method triangulation to check consistency/commonalities of response on themes from interviews with return migrants, elderly, and key informants.
Results and conclusions: Women generally return to Indonesia at the end of their contract, some returned by request of their family. Reintegration was reported most challenging at conjugal level and with children. Difficult relationships with husbands and children deterred women from migrating again; even when they were faced with economic hardships and unemployment. The study concludes that return migration and re-integration with family and community is harder for all women, irrespective of the reasons for return. Policies and programmes to facilitate return migration are needed to re-integrate women with their families and communities.

ii.Henny Rosalinda, Saseendran Pallikadavath, Amie Kamanda, Keppi Sukesi, Faishal Aminuddin, Kieron Hatton, What happens to the family when women migrate: The socio-economic impact of international female labour migration on left-behind family members in East Java, Indonesia. British Society for Population Studies: http://www.lse.ac.uk/socialPolicy/Researchcentresandgroups/BSPS/annualConference/2016-Conference-Winchester/Timetable.pdf

Context: International female labour migration leads to the temporary separation of women from their husbands and children. One of the countries in the South East Asia region which has witnessed the feminisation of migration is Indonesia. Eighty percent of Indonesia’s official international labour migrants are female, originating mainly from Java. A comprehensive analysis on the impact of female migration on the left-behind family members is needed to provide an evidence base for policies. This paper aims to address this need.
Data and methods: Data were collected using a sequential mixed method strategy; household census followed by interviews of left-behind husbands from two villages. Household data and 71 interview transcripts were analysed using descriptive analysis and thematic analysis, respectively.
Results and conclusions: There is clear evidence of migration leading to economic benefits to the family. Realising the pride of constructing a new home was reported as a significant achievement, as it symbolises the economic and social status. A prosperous home with finances to meet basic necessities, school fees, and medical emergencies were enabled by remittances. On the social side, the impact was both positive and negative. Reversal of gender roles was noted; men doing chores which were traditionally performed by women. While this is a welcome change, this reversal discontinues when the women return. On the negative, migration posed social challenges from marital dissolution, child neglect and family instability to the burden of childcare for grandmothers. Support mechanisms for left-behind family members should be developed as well as advice on effective management of remittances.

iii. Faishal Aminuddin, Saseendran Pallikadavath, Amie Kamanda, Keppi Sukesi, Henny Rosalinda, Kieron Hatton, The social and economic impact of international female labour migration on left-behind parents in East Java, Indonesia. British Society for Population
Studies:http://www.lse.ac.uk/socialPolicy/Researchcentresandgroups/BSPS/annualConference/2016-Conference-Winchester/Timetable.pdf

Context: International labour migration from Indonesia is dominated by young females, who have traditionally been the carers of the parents, especially in rural areas. Previous studies documented the contribution of migration of daughters/daughters-in-law to the reduced social status, increased neglect, and poor mental health of the left-behind parents/elderly. This paper, for the first time, examined the socio-economic impact on the parents while their unmarried and married daughters/daughters-in-law were working abroad. The paper takes a holistic perspective while considering the impact within the wider social, economic and political context.
Data and methods: Data from a household census (178 households) and in-depth interviews (71 left-behind households) conducted during two months of fieldwork in two villages in East Java in 2015 were used in this paper. The qualitative data were analysed for pre-determined themes as well as those that emerged during analysis. Census data were analysed using descriptive statistics.
Results and conclusions: Unmarried daughters helped parents by contributing to the family economy, where the parents were the direct beneficiaries. Remittances from the unmarried daughters were mainly saved for their marriages. While parents were concerned about the safety of their unmarried daughters, the concern with regard to married daughters were about children, and marital dissolution. Grandmothers provided home-based care and grandfathers provided support with schooling and health care. Grandparents experienced stress if there was inadequate communication and financial support from daughters/daughters-in-law for the children left-behind. International female migration had resulted in a reversal of care where parents were tasked with more responsibilities which traditionally were carried out by daughters.

iv. Saseendran Pallikadavath, Amie Kamanda, Keppi Sukesi, Faishal Aminuddin, Henny Rosalinda, Kieron Hatton, The social and economic impact of international female labour migration on left-behind husbands: Case study of East Java, Indonesia. British Society for Population Studies: http://www.lse.ac.uk/socialPolicy/Researchcentresandgroups/BSPS/annualConference/2016-Conference-Winchester/Families-&-households-strand-abstracts.aspx
European Population Association: http://epc2016.princeton.edu/sessions/P1#51

Context: International female labour migration in south-east Asia leads to the temporary separation of married couples. One of the countries in the region which has witnessed the feminisation of migration is Indonesia, the world’s fourth largest nation. Eighty percent of Indonesia’s official international labour migrants are female, originating mainly from Java. The impact of international female migration on the left-behind husbands is the least studied topic within the context of female migration. The aim of this paper is to examine the socio-economic impact of international labour migration of wives on the left-behind husbands in East Java, Indonesia.
Data and methods: Data were collected using a sequential mixed method; household census followed by interviews of left-behind husbands from two villages. Household data and 71 interview transcripts were analysed using descriptive analysis and thematic analysis, respectively. We also employed method triangulation to check consistency/commonalities of response on themes from interviews with return migrants, elderly, and key informants.
Results and conclusions: Left-behind husbands received regular remittances from their wives. Remittances were managed by husbands, and were spent according to their choices. There was a reversal of gender roles as husbands assumed childcare and domestic responsibilities, duties previously undertaken by their wives. Long periods of separation between couples resulted in union dissolution and family instability. In these cases, tensions arose from husbands’ assertion of masculinity such as mismanagement of remittances, having extra-marital relations, drinking and gambling. The policy implications of this study are focused on marriage counselling for migrant couples and effective management of remittances

v. Amie Kamanda, Saseendran Pallikadavath, Keppi Sukesi, Faishal Aminuddin, Henny Rosalinda, Kieron Hatton, The social and economic impact of international female labour migration on left-behind children in East Java, Indonesia. British Society for Population
Studies:http://www.lse.ac.uk/socialPolicy/Researchcentresandgroups/BSPS/annualConference/2016-Conference-Winchester/Timetable.pdf

Context: An estimated 80% of individuals migrating officially outside of Indonesia to work are women. International female labour migration leads to the temporary separation of mothers from their children. Previous research showed that separation has been found to lead to the reduced wellbeing of the child, as being a homogeneous group. This paper explores the impact of this separation on both young children as well as adolescents; the impact is conceptualised to significantly vary across these physically and emotionally growing sub-groups.
Data and methods: The study was carried out in two villages in Malang and Ponorogo regencies in East Java. A census (178 households in two villages) was followed by in-depth interviews (71) with left-behind family members, including adolescents. Descriptive analysis was applied to the household dataset and thematic analysis was used to triangulate the views of the household members.
Results and conclusions: Both young children and adolescents benefited from migration: while young children mainly benefited from better quality education, health care, consumption; older children had greater access to pocket money and extracurricular activities. Some mothers migrated after childbirth, leaving their children in the care of their husbands or grandmothers for a longer duration. Such children reported feeling a sense of loneliness and neglect leading to emotional separation from their mothers. Adolescent girls reported difficulties in managing their physical changes without mother, leading to stress and discomfort. A contribution of this study is identifying the challenges faced by adolescent girls as they started puberty in the absence of their mothers.